The prevalence of the six-seconds rule may be rooted in the belief that fast subtitle speeds will not allow viewers to follow both the subtitles and the on-screen action . However, how much time do viewers actually spend reading subtitles and watching the images This can be assessed using the concepts of absolute reading time and proportional reading time . Absolute reading time is measured in seconds and it is the actual time spent on reading the subtitle. For instance, a viewer can spend 4 seconds reading a subtitle displayed for 6 seconds, which leaves them 2 seconds to follow the on-screen action in the film. Proportional reading time is measured in percentages and is the proportion of the total subtitle display time during which the viewer is actually gazing at the subtitle. Thus, if a reader looks at the 6-second-subtitle for 4 seconds, their proportional reading time is 66%. Longer subtitle display times have been found to increase the absolute reading time but decrease the proportional reading time [15, 16]. On the one hand, this finding may suggest that longer subtitle display times can benefit viewers by giving them more time to follow the on-screen action. On the other hand, however, it is plausible that when faced with fast subtitles, viewers simply read them more efficiently and, ultimately, do not need longer display times.
When it comes to the differences between the videos in a language that is familiar (English in Exp. 2) and unfamiliar (Hungarian in Exp. 1) to viewers, we hypothesized that because people support their viewing with auditory information from the soundtrack, the preference for faster speeds and unreduced text may be more discernible when they understand the language of the film dialogue, whereas it may be less pronounced in the case of a language that viewers have no knowledge of. Furthermore, the analysis between different groups of subjects (Spanish, Polish and English) enabled us to consider the impact of experience with subtitling on the processing of subtitled videos. We expected that people who are familiar with subtitling may have developed certain strategies allowing them to process subtitles more efficiently, possibly evidenced by higher comprehension and lower cognitive load.
Subtitle speed had an effect on all eye tracking measures (Table 10). There were no interactions. Slower subtitles induced more fixations and higher mean fixation duration than faster subtitles. The absolute reading time was longest in the 12 cps condition, whereas the proportional reading time was highest in the 20 cps condition. Fig 1A shows that an increase in subtitle speeds resulted in an increase in the percentage of time spent in the subtitle area, relative to subtitle duration. Subtitles in the slowest condition (12 cps) triggered the largest number of revisits, which may mean that participants read the subtitle, looked at the scene and gazed back at the subtitle area, only to find the same subtitle there. We discovered a trend, depicted in Fig 1B, that the longer the subtitle duration, the more revisits to the subtitle area. When watching slow subtitles, viewers re-read two out of three subtitles, but when watching fast subtitles, they re-read about one in five.
We also found an interaction between speed and language in effort, F(2,71) = 6.935, p = .002, ηp2 = 163) and in frustration, F(2,71) = 4.658, p = .013, ηp2 = .116). We decomposed these interactions with simple effects with Bonferroni correction and found a main effect of subtitle speed on frustration in the English, F(1,26) = 16.980, p = .000, ηp2 = .395, and Spanish group, F(1,25) = 4.355, p = .047, ηp2 = .148. Frustration was lower in the 20 cps condition compared to 12 cps. For Polish speakers, there was a main effect of subtitle speed on effort, F(1,20) = 14.134, p = .001, ηp2 = .414 but not for frustration. Polish participants declared to expend more effort when reading faster subtitles displayed at 20 cps compared to the slow subtitles.
Similarly to Experiment 1, we found the main effect of subtitle speed on all eye tracking measures (see Table 18). The slow subtitles induced more fixations than the fast ones. In all groups of participants, the mean fixation duration was lower in the 20 cps condition. Absolute reading time for the 20 cps condition was lower than the 12 cps condition. Proportional reading time, however, was higher for faster subtitles.
The implication of the number of revisits to the subtitle area for the subtitle reading process is that when watching slow subtitles, viewers re-read every second subtitle, whereas in the case of the fast subtitles, only one in five or one in six was re-read. This may be taken to mean that slow subtitles resulted in a more disrupted reading process.
The fact that slower subtitles did not result in higher comprehension may be somewhat surprising but possibly suggests that viewers can cope well with reading subtitles irrespective of their speed. Our results are consistent with the prior work on SDH, which showed that slow edited subtitles did not result in higher comprehension than fast unreduced subtitles [6, 36].
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Sterritt ** Three low-life men - a gangster, a bank robber, and a drug-abusing clerk - pursue one another down Tokyo streets until their brains are so scrambled they can hardly remember who's chasing whom and for what. This tragicomic tale doesn't have the supercharged brilliance of \"Run Lola Run,\" which it occasionally resembles, but it's certainly fast-moving and action fans should enjoy it. In Japanese with English subtitles 781b155fdc